1. Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral Palsy is a non-progressive but not unchanging disorder of movement and/or posture due to an anomaly of the developing nervous system. It damages parts of the body which cannot be recovered nor can be worsened. However the movements, body positions, and related problems can be improved depending upon the child's treatment and degree of brain damage. In most cases there are lot of associated impairments, such as mental retardation, hearing and speech impairment.Read More...
Types of Cerebral PalsyCerebral Palsy is different in each child. There are mainly three different ways in which cerebral palsy can appear.
2. Learning Disability
Learning Disability is a group of neurological or brain-based problems that affect one or more ways that a person takes in, stores or uses information. LDs come in many forms and their effects are different from person to person. They relate to: Getting information into the brain (Input), Making sense of this information (Organization), Storing and retrieving information (Memory), Getting information back out (Output).Read More...
By definition, people with Learning Disabilities have average to above average intelligence yet they have very specific impairments in one or more of the psychological processes related to learning.
Common learning disabilities
Dyslexia – a language-based disability in which a person has trouble understanding written words. It may also be referred to as reading disability or reading disorder.
Dyscalculia – a mathematical disability in which a person has a difficult time solving arithmetic problems and grasping math concepts.
Dysgraphia – a writing disability in which a person finds it hard to form letters or write within a defined space.
Auditory and Visual Processing Disorders – sensory disabilities in which a person has difficulty understanding language despite normal hearing and vision.
Nonverbal Learning Disabilities – a neurological disorder which originates in the right hemisphere of the brain, causing problems with visual-spatial, intuitive, organizational, evaluative and holistic processing functions.
Learning Disability is diagnosed most commonly as an outcome of a comprehensive psychological assessment. Using a number of standardized tests that have been given to thousands of people, psychologists will systematically look at how people think, problem-solve, remember, understand and express information.
Autism Spectrum Disorder is a complex condition that impacts normal brain development and affects a person's social relationships, communication, interests and behaviour. Studies indicate that ASD affects one in every 150 children. ASD usually appears early in life, often before the age of three, and is four to five times more common in boys than in girls.Read More...
4. Mental Retardation
Mental Retardation is a condition in which there is delay or deficiency in all aspects of development, i.e. there is global and noticeable deficiency in the development of motor, cognitive, social, and language functions. This is the most common form of developmental disability. In many ways, mental retardation is also representative of developmental disabilities in general, in its causation, nature, and care. In many ways, mental retardation is also representative of developmental disabilities in general, in its causation, nature, and care (WHO)Read More...
5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurological condition that involves difficulties with inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity that are developmentally inconsistent with the age of the child. ADHD is not a disorder of attention, as had long been assumed. Rather, it is a function of developmental failure in the brain circuitry that monitors inhibition and self-control. This loss of self-regulation impairs other important brain functions crucial for maintaining attention, including the ability to defer immediate rewards for later gain (Barkley, 1998).Read More...
6. Hearing Impairment
Hearing impairment is the inability of an individual to hear sounds adequately. This may be due to improper development, damage or disease to any part of the hearing mechanism.
Hearing is a prerequisite for the development of normal speech & language. A child learns to speak by hearing the speech of others in the family and surroundings.
7. Speech and Language Impairment
There are many kinds of speech and hearing impairments. The four areas in which the impairment occurs are:
Articulation: speech impairments where the child produce sounds incorrectly (e.g.,lisp, difficulty articulating certain sounds, such as "l" or "r");
8. Visual Impairment
The term 'visual impairment' refers to people with irretrievable sight loss and this simple definition covers a wide spectrum of different impairments. It does not include those whose sight problems can be corrected by spectacles or contact lenses, though it does include those whose sight might be improved by medical intervention.
Poliomyelitis is a viral disease that affects the nerves and leads to partial or full paralysis. It usually begins when the child is small and often during illness like fever or diarrhea. Though it may affect any muscle of the body but it is most common in the legs. Paralysis is of the floppy type and muscles are sometimes partly weakened. The muscles and bones of the affected limb become thinner compared to other limbs and are shorter since it does not grow like other limbs.Read More...
10. Muscular Dystrophy
Muscular Dystrophy is a condition in which muscles, month by month and year by year, get weaker and weaker. It is a progressive condition, since the muscles gradually weakens. It mostly affects boys (rarely girls). The first signs appear around the ages 3 to 5, where the child may seem awkward or clumsy or begins to walk 'tiptoe'.
The condition gradually deteriorates. Muscle weakness first affects feet, fronts of thighs, hips, belly, shoulders and elbows. Later it affects hands, face and neck muscles. Most children becomes unable to walk by age 10 and may develop a severe curve of the spine. Heart and breathing muscles also get weak. Child usually dies before age 20 from heart failure or pneumonia.
11. Spina Bifida
Spina Bifida is a defect in the early development of the baby when it is in the womb. It happens when some of the backbones (vertebrae) do not close over the large central nerve, (the spinal cord). As a result, there remains a soft unprotected area of the spinal cord which bulges out in the centre of the back. This bulged out area (sac) may contain the covering (meningeal membrane) of the spinal cord with fluid (cerebro-spinal fluid) or sometimes nerve fibers or even part of the spinal cord.
The associated conditions are: muscle weakness and loss of feeling; the legs or the feet may be paralyzed; one or both hips may be dislocated; muscle spasms; poor urine and bowel control and hydrocephalus (water on the brain) which can lead to brain damage.